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Here are some of the book and article references noted on this website, plus others worth looking into:

References: General

Bruner, J. S. (1960/1977). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Christensen, C. M. (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma:  When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Crutchfield, L. R., & Grant, H. M. (2008). Forces For Good:  The Six Practices of High-Impact Nonprofits. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J., & Associates. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2009). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

References:  Physical Education (PE), Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity, Recess, Student Academic Achievement & Engagement, Child/Adult Health

Ahamed, Y., Macdonald, H., Reed, K., Naylor, P.-J., Liu-Ambrose, T., & Mckay, H. (2007). School-based physical activity does not compromise children’s academic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(2), 371-376.

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Obesity in Children and Teens. Washington DC.

Brener N.D., Pejavara A., McManus T. (2011). Applying the School Health Index to a nationally representative sample of schools: update for 2006. Journal of School Health, 81: 81-90.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014). BLS consumer expenditure survey, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

CDC (2016). Chronic Disease Overview page.

CDC (2015). 2015 State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2015 Standard HS YRBS questionnaire. Atlanta, Georgia.

CDC (2014). School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Elementary school version. Atlanta, Georgia.

CDC (2014). School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle school/high school version. Atlanta, Georgia.

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Kim, J. S., Voss, M. W., VanPatter, M., et al. (2010). A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Research, 1358, 172-183.

Chaddock, L., Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., VanPatter, M., Voss, M. W., Pontifex, M. B., et al. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Developmental Neuroscience, 32, 249-256.

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Schanzenbach, D. W., & Yagan, D. (2011). How does your Kindergarten Classroom Affect your Earnings?  Evidence from Project Star*. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4), 1593–1660.

Council of Economic Advisers (2009). The economic effects of health care reform on small business and their employees. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.

Crump, C., Sundquist, J., et al. (2016). Physical fitness among Swedish military conscripts and long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine, doi:10.7326/M15-2002.

DeHeer, H. (2014). Fit Kids at School: Executive Report Parts 1 & 2. Summer 2014.

Desy, E., Peterson, S., Brockman, V. (2011). Gender differences in science-related attitudes and interests among middle school and high school students. Science Educator, 20, 2, 23-30.

Dills, A.K., Morgan, H.N., Rotthoff, K.W. (2011).  Recess, physical education, and elementary school student outcomes.  Economics of Education Review, 30, 889-900.

Donnelly, J. E., Greene, J. L., Gibson, C. A., Smith, B. K., Washburn, R. A., Sullivan, D. K., . . . Williams, S. L. (2009). Physical activity across the curriculum (PAAC): A randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Preventive Medicine, 49, 336-341.

Edwards, J. U., Mauch, L., & Winkelman, M. R. (2011). Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District. Journal of School Health, 81(2), 65-73.

Fedewa, A.L., & Ahn S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 82, 521-535.

Frisvold, D.E. (2015). Nutrition and cognitive achievement: An evaluation of the School Breakfast Program, Journal of Public Economics, 124, 91-104.

Geier, A., Foster, G., Womble, L., & al., E. (2007). The relationship between relative weight and school attendance among elementary schoolchildren. Obesity, 15(8), 2157-2161.

Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Savelyev, P. A., & Yavitz, A. (2010). The rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Public Economics, 94, 114-128.

Herman, K. M., Craig, C. L., Gauvin, L., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2009). Tracking of obesity and physical activity from childhood to adulthood: The Physical Activity Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 4(4), 281-288.

Hillman, C. H. (2010). Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Children. Kansas: University of Illinois.

Hillman, C.H., Pontifex, M.B., et al (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience,2009 March 31; 159(3): 1044–1054. 

[Edunuity note: immediate one-grade-level improvement in test score performance from recent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.]

Hogstrom, G., Nordstrom, A., & Nordstrom, P. (2014). High aerobic fitness in late adolescence is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction later in life: a nationwide cohort study in men. European Heart Journal, 35, 3133–3140.

Hollar, D., Messiah, S. E., Lopez-Mitnik, G., Hollar, T. L., Almon, M., & Agatston, A., S. . (2010). Effect of a Two-Year Obesity Prevention Intervention on Percentile Changes in Body Mass Index and Academic Performance in Low-Income Elementary School Children. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 646-653.

Isaacs, S., & Swartz, A. (2010). Editor’s choice – On the front lines of childhood obesity. American Journal of  Public Health, 100(11), 2018.

Johnson, J. K. (2010). Program Evaluation of Operation Tone-Up. Phoenix: Desert Sage Associates.

Katz, Cushman, Reynolds, et al (2010). Putting physical activity where it fits in the school day: preliminary results of the ABC (Activity Bursts in the Classroom) for fitness program.Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 7 (4), A82 (1-10).

Lees, C. & Hopkins, J. (2013). Effect of aerobic exercise on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function in children: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Preventing Chronic Disease, 10, October 24, 2013.

Lever, J. and Thorpe, K. (2011, May 24). Prevention: the answer to curbing chronically high health care costs (guest opinion). Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from

Mackey, A.P., Finn, A.S., et al (2015). Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income-Achievement Gap, Psychological Science, 26 (6), 925-933. 

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2001-2011. Available at:

NASBO, 2012.  State Expediture Report.  Available at:

Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(806-814), 8.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012). U.S. health care system from an international perspective. OECD Health Data 2012. Paris, France:

Reeves, J. (2016). US Department of Education Grant Performance Report (ED 524B).

[Edunuity note: this is the official report on the initial version of the Empower Youth Health Program & related elements.]

Ricanati, E.H.W., Golubic, M., Yang, D., Saager, L., Mascha, E.J., Roizen, M.F. (2011). Mitigating preventable chronic disease: progress report of the Cleveland Clinic’s Lifestyle 180 program. Nutrition & Metabolism, 8(83). doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-83.

Rumberger, Russell W. (2011). Dropping out: why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.

Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengard, P. (1999). Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: Project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 127-134.

Schuch, F.B., Vancampfort, D., Richards, J., et al. (2016). Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 77, 52-51.

Singh, A., Uijtdewilligen, L., Twisk, J.W., van Mechelen, W., & Chinapaw, M.J. (2012). Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 166, 49-55.

Skinner, A.C., Perrin, E.M., & Skelton, J.A. (2016). Prevalence of Obesity and Severe Obesity in US Children, 1999-2014. Pediatric Obesity, 24, 1116-1123.

Sugerman, S., Adkins, S., Hooker, S., Foerster, S., Carman, J., & Chenoweth, D. (2005). The Economic Costs of Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Overweight in California Adults: Health Care, Workers’ Compensation, and Lost Productivity: California Department of Health Services, Public Health Institute.

Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2010). Relationships of physical activity to brain health and the academic performance of schoolchildren. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4(138).

Trost, S., & van der Mars, H. (2009). Why we should not cut PE. Educational leadership, 67(4), 60-65.

Trudeau, F., & Shephard, R. J. (2008). Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(10).

Turner, S. (2013). Transformative Education for Long-term Behavior Change: Preventing Childhood Obesity and Improving Health Through In-School Curriculum-based Nutrition and Exercise Programs. (PhD Human and Organizational Systems), Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA.

Wen, X., Gillman, M.W., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Sherry, B., Kleinman, K., Taveras, E.M. Decreasing prevalence of obesity among young children in Massachusetts from 2004 to 2008. Pediatrics. 2012;129(5): 823-831.

Whitaker, R., Wright, J., Pepe, M., Seidel, K., & Dietz, W. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 337(13), 869-873.

Yamamoto, (2013). Health care costs—from birth to death. Part of the Health Care Cost Institute’s Independent Report Series – Report 2013-1. Society of Actuaries.

Zhuo et al, (2014). The lifetime cost of diabetes and its implications for diabetes prevention. Diabetes Care, 37: 2557-2564.

References: Percent Giving

The Center on Philanthropy. (2008). Key Findings – Center on Philanthropy Panel Study: Indiana University[Edunuity note: see page 5 for percent of income statistics by socioeconomic level]

References: Libraries-and-Literacy for All

Dowd, A. J., O’Donnell, N., Ochoa, C., & Borisova, I. (2010). Community Strategies for Promoting Literacy: Save the Children.

Elkington, J., & Hartigan, P. (2008). The Power of Unreasonable People:  How Social Entrepreneurs Create Markets That Change the World. Boston: Harvard Business Press.

Ryall, C., & Hussein, N. (2013). Literacy Boost Partnership Programme: Save the Children and World Vision International.

Yunus, M. (2007). Creating a World Without Poverty:  Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York: Public Affairs.

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